Q: What is diagnostic laparoscopy?

Ans: A diagnostic laparoscopy is a procedure in which the laparoscopic surgeon  uses a laparoscope, to look at the organs and tissues inside abdominal cavity.

Q: What is laparoscopic surgery ?

Ans: The laparoscopic surgery  is a method by which surgery is done by making small incisions on the abdominal wall and inserting the instruments through specially designed ports. The procedure will be visualized with the help of a camera, which will also be introduced through one of these ports.

Q: What are the advantages of this method ?

Ans: In conventional surgery a long incision is made to gain entry into the abdominal cavity and operate. This result in increased post- operative pain, longer stay in hospital, delayed recovery, long and ugly scars, respiratory problems, higher chance of wound infection, higher chance of incisional hernia, delayed feeding after surgery. The incidence of all these is dramatically reduced by laparoscopic surgery.

Q: What procedure can be done by laparoscopic surgery?

Ans: Almost all surgeries being done in open surgery are nowadays being performed. The most common however are cholecystectomy (removal of the gall bladder), appendicectomy (removal of the appendix), tubal ligation (sterilisation), diagnostic laparoscopy, hernia repair.

Q: What are the risks of laparoscopic surgery?


  1. There are some risks when you have general anaesthesia.

  2. There is chance of infection or bleeding.

  3. The abdominal organs, glands, intestines, or blood vessels may be damaged if surgeon is not experienced

  4. The lining of the abdominal wall may become inflamed known as peritonitis

  5. A blood clot may enter the bloodstream, and clog an artery in the lung, pelvis, or legs.  Clot may break off and clog an artery in the heart or brain, causing a heart attack or stroke. But these risks are very rare.

Q: What are the benefits of laparoscopy?

Ans: The recovery time in the immediate post operative period is quicker. Patients often go home after only 23 hours to recover in the comfort of their own home. The small incisions tend to be less painful and patients often need less postoperative pain medication as a result. Fewer wound infections occur. The cosmetic results are also appealing as the scar is limited to three or four skin incisions that are less then one half inch long


Q:   How common are UTIs?

Ans: Urinary Tract Infections account for approximately 7 million visits to physicians' offices, and necessitate or complicate over 1 million hospital admissions in the United States annually.  UTIs are more common in women than in men, except in the neonatal period.

Q:  Why are women more prone to UTIs than men?

Ans: Women are more prone to UTIs than men due to the close proximity of the urethra, vagina, and rectum. Surveys have shown that 1% of school girls age 5-14 years have bacteria in the urine.  This figure increases to about 4% by young adulthood.

Q:  How does bacteria get into the urinary tract?

Ans: Most bacteria enter the urinary tract from the fecal reservoir, entering the urethra into the bladder.  Bacteria can also enter through the blood where the kidney is occasionally secondarily infected with Staphylococcus or the fungus Candida.  A less common source of bacteria is direct extension from adjacent organs via lymphatics, such as a severe bowel infection or retroperitoneal abscess.

Q:  How do you treat UTIs?

Ans: The mainstay of treatment  is antibiotics.  However, a source should be sought for recurrent, persistent, or complicated UTIs and corrected: e.g., obstruction from urinary stones, congenital urinary tract anomalies, indwelling catheters, diabetes, and spinal cord injury.

Q:  How do you treat urinary incontinence?

Ans: Treatment of urinary incontinence depends upon the type, cause, and severity of the problem.  Most importantly, the treatment of incontinence should be predicated on a clear understanding of the underlying physiology and pathology.  In some cases exercising the pelvic floor muscles (Kegels, biofeedback, or electrical stimulation) or periurethral injection of collagen may suffice in mild cases of stress incontinence.  In some cases medications may be effective, e.g., estrogens may be effective when stress incontinence is due to hormonal imbalance. 

If urge incontinence also exists, combination therapy may be necessary.  In severe cases associated with anatomical abnormalities such as intrinsic sphincter deficiency, large cystoceles, urethral diverticulum, vesico-vaginal fistulae or genital prolapse, surgery may be the best option. For the neurogenic bladder, clean, intermittent self-catheterization is an option. 

Based on the results of your urologic evaluation, your Urologist will recommend the best management option for you. With today's advanced diagnostics and treatment options,  the choice of doing nothing, wearing absorbent products, or stuffing one's undergarments with tissue/towels is usually a poor choice and unnecessary?

Q:  What should I do if I experience some of the above symptoms and am incontinent of urine?

Ans: Because urinary incontinence is often the source of great social embarrassment, it may be the sign of significant underlying pathology, and in most cases is successfully treatable.  You should seek consultation with a Urologist experienced in managing urinary incontinence as soon as possible.

Q:  What is urinary incontinence?

Ans: Urinary incontinence is defined as the uncontrollable loss of urine. It is the most common urologic disorder affecting both men and women in the United States.  Women are affected more than men in a 3:1 ratio