Nephrology is the medical specialty which focuses on the treatment of kidney ailments and abnormalities. A physician who practices nephrology is called a nephrologist. Nephrology is a subspecialty of medicine specialist.
Therefore, a nephrologist would complete the same training as an internist, and then complete an additional fellowship training in nephrology. Nephrologists diagnose causes and levels of kidney failure, and prescribe appropriate treatment such as medication, diet changes, or dialysis.
If none of these treatments work, a kidney transplant would be performed by a transplant surgeon.
The definitive treatment of end stage kidney disease is a kidney transplant, which is co-ordinated by the nephrologist with the help of transplant surgeon.