Civil Law :
Civil law (or civilian law) is a legal system inspired by English law, the primary feature of which is that laws are written into a collection, codified, and not (as in common law) determined by judges. Conceptually, it is the group of legal ideas and systems ultimately derived from the Code of Justinian, but heavily overlaid by Germanic, ecclesiastical, feudal, and local practices, as well as doctrinal strains such as natural law, codification, and legislative positivism. Materially, civil law proceeds from abstractions, formulates general principles, and distinguishes substantive rules from procedural rules. It holds legislation as the primary source of law, and the court system is usually inquisitorial, unbound by precedent, and composed of specially trained judicial officers with a limited ability to interpret law.
The principle of civil law is to provide all citizens with an accessible and written collection of the laws which apply to them and which judges must follow. It is the most prevalent and oldest surviving legal system in the world. Colonial expansion spread the civil law system and European civil law has been adopted in much of Latin America as well as in parts of Asia and Africa. The primary source of law is the legal code, which is a compendium of statutes, arranged by subject matter in some pre-specified order; a code may also be described as "a systematic collection of interrelated articles written in a terse, staccato style." Law codes are usually created by a legislature's enactment of a new statute that embodies all the old statutes relating to the subject and including changes necessitated by court decisions. In some cases, the change results in a new statutory concept. The two other major legal systems in the world are common law and Islamic law.
Land Law :
According to the Constitution, state legislatures are empowered to make laws and regulations regarding to a number of subject-matters, including water, land (rights in or over land, land tenure, transfer and alienation of agricultural land), as well as the preservation, protection and improvement of stock and the prevention of animal disease. Referring to the laws and regulations adopted by the central government, get a bird's eye view of Land Law at India housing.
The Registration Act, 1908 takes care of the gift of immovable property and non-testamentary instruments, annual leases of immovable property, sales, mortgages and exchanges of immovable property. The net effect has been that a large number of property transactions have been accomplished without proper registration. Further instruments such as Agreement to Sell, General Power of Attorney and will have been indiscriminately used to effect change of ownership.
Property tax is a levy charged by the municipal authorities for the upkeep of civic services in the city. It is levied on the basis of reasonable rent at which the property might be let from year to year. The reasonable rent can be actual rent if it is fair and reasonable. In the world's largest democracy, acquisition of landed property is a complex issue, presupposing a host of prerequisites.
Land law mainly deals with Land Reforms Acts, West Bengal Estates Acquisition Act, Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation Act).